Volume 03 Issue 01
Effects of Climate Conditions and Some Operating Parameters on Pressure Drop and Heat and Mass Transfer Characteristics of Cooling Tower in Refrigeration and Air – Conditioning Systems
Dang Tran Tho, Dang Quoc Phu | pp: 01-07 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: This paper presents some experimental results in effect of climate conditions, cooling demand and structure of the specific packed-bed on heat and mass transfer characteristics and pressure drop of Cooling tower (CTW) in lab-scale refrigeration and air-conditioning systems and industrial ones as well. Based upon such experimental results, a correlation was developed to estimate heat transfer characteristics of cooling towers that would be a useful tool for proper design and operation of Cooling towers.
Trends in Wing Design and Role ofBlended Wing Body (BWB) in the Performance Characteristics of Aircraft
Akhila Rupesh, A.K. Anchith | pp: 08-14 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Wings prove as the major factor in any design considerations for an aircraft, as it is the essential parameter which helps the designers for the calculation of lift generated for that particular design. The wing design has undergone slow but steady changes throughout the phase development of aircraft designs from the early days to the present. This seminar deals with the various trends the wing design has faced throughout the paces of aircraft development and testing. The early stages of wing design included the positioning and number of wings along with the degree of twist provided on it to increase the aerodynamic characteristics. Later on we came to see much more radical wing design, as the likes of delta wing, canard wing etc. The increasing demand for the aerodynamic efficiency led to the present stage realization of blend wing body. A BWB is a fixed wing aircraft having no clear dividing line between the wings and the main body of the aircraft. In this the wing is effectively and smoothly blended into the housing of the fuselage. Here the role of BWB to increase the performance characteristics is evaluated and it can be generally found to be about 50% more lift to drag ratio than conventional aircrafts. The BWB design can be extensively employed in aircrafts and underwater gliders.
Investigation on Thermal Decomposition Behavior of Ammonium Nitrate Co-crystallized with Cadmium (II) Nitrate (Tetrahydrate)
Manish K. Bharti, Sonia Chalia | pp: 15-20 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: The present study investigates the influence of addition of Cadmium (II) Nitrate (Tetrahydrate) (Cd(NO3)2.4H2O) on the thermal decomposition behavior of Ammonium Nitrate (AN) and on its various phase state transitions using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Co-crystals of Cd(NO3)2.4H2O and AN were prepared by means of evaporation technique using a mixture of methanol and water as solvents and three samples were prepared. The quantity of Cd(NO3)2.4H2O was varied as 3, 6 and 10 percent of the total weight of the composition. DSC analysis of the samples was conducted in an inert isobaric atmosphere at a sample heating rate of 10 °C/min to assess their thermal decomposition behavior. A baseline, to facilitate comparison, was also obtained by analyzing untreated AN under same conditions. The present study established that Cd(NO3)2.4H2O, when used in as low weight percentages as 3%, was capable of eliminating the phase state transition (II) along with a delay in the onset temperature of phase state transition (III) by a significant amount of ~20 °C. Addition of Cd(NO3)2.4H2O also lowered down the decomposition temperature range of the mixture which may enable faster liquefaction of the propellant ingredients leading to improved burn rates.
Evaluation of Neat Cashew Nut Shell Oil Performance in Diesel Engine
S. Santhanakrishnan, N. Senthilkumar, P. Lawrence | pp: 21-25 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Vegetable oils can be directly used in compression ignition engine without any modification. This investigation is to study the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with diesel and neat cashew nut shell oil. Performance characteristics like brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature, specific fuel consumption, and emission characteristics like carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbon, oxides of nitrogen and smoke emissions were analyzed.
Methods for Reducing Aerodynamic Drag in Vehicles and thus Acquiring Fuel Economy
L. Anantha Raman, Rahul Hari H. | pp: 26-32 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: This paper discusses about techniques that can be adopted to reduce the formation of aerodynamic drag on vehicles & thus reducing the fuel consumption. This is a comparative study and hence conclusions based on more than one method are practiced here. One of the major causes of aerodynamic drag on a vehicle is due to the formation of flow separation at the rear end of the vehicle. For reducing such flow separation certain aerodynamic shapes or surfaces can be provided on the vehicle surface. One such improvement is the usage of a bump-shaped vortex generator that restricts flow separation up to an extent & thereby reducing the aerodynamic drag. Another method is by the usage of two passive devices known as rear fairing, which is the aerodynamic extension of a vehicle’s rear end and the other is a rear screen, which is a plate fixed behind the back of a car. Drag induced on a vehicle prohibits it for higher acceleration. And hence for attaining higher velocities more fuel has to be burnt, which increases the fuel usage & also leads to higher carbon emissions that will gradually affect the environment.
Catalytic Converter for Ozone Decomposition in Aircraft Cabins
L. Anantha Raman, Dinanath H. | pp: 33-39 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: To conserve fuel whenever possible, and to limit cost increases resulting from world-wide increase in the oil prices, passenger aircraft are now fly at higher altitudes compared to previous. This probably takes them into the ozone containing layer of atmosphere and when this is drawn into the aircraft by air conditioning systems, they cause physical discomfort and irritation to aircraft crews and passengers. Catalytic decomposition, using a metal supported catalyst, provides an economic practical solution in this problem is to reduce an acceptable level the amount of ozone entering the aircraft cabins. Of all the methods available for dealing with the problem of ozone in air, catalytic decomposition offers probably the most elegant and the simplest solution. The principle of catalytic decomposition of ozone had already been applied in a wide variety of other industrial applications such as the treatment wastage gases containing ozone from water and sewage treatment installations and the removal of ozone from arc lamp cooling systems etc. The selection of the catalyst type was based on the proven advantages of very high catalyst surface/volume ratio, low resistance to gas flow, and immunity to thermal and mechanical shock offered by metal honeycomb supported catalysts.
Removal of Nickel (II) from Aqueous Solution Using Marine Alga Sargassum swartzii in Continuous System
V. Sivasubramanian, M. Jerold, Jacob Varun Dev, M. Aneesh Benny, Mohamed Swalih | pp: 40-44 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Biosorption of nickel (II) ions from aqueous solution onto Sargassum swartzii in continuous mode of operation has been studied. The involvement of various functional groups was elucidated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The surface morphology of the biosorbent was visualized by means of Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The EDAX analysis was also done to understand the elements and their contribution for the biosorption of Ni (II) ions. The biosorption was maximum at pH 4. The column experimental data was analyzed using Logit model. The results obtained from the experiments showed that S. swartzii can be used as effective biosorbent for the removal of Ni (II) ions from wastewater.
Use and Exploitation of Rare Earth Metals
D. Ananthapadmanaban, N. Arun, Jaya Arun Prashanth | pp: 45-48 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Rare Earth metals are being used to a very large extent in today’s challenging environment. This paper discusses the sources of rare earth metals and their applications. The paper especially focuses on 4 rare earth metals-Lanthanum, Cerium, Dysprosium and Neodymium. Mining scenario is discussed and the current state of the art technology has been brought out.
Processing, Characterization and Applications of Polymer Nano Composites – A State of the Art Review
D. Amrishraj, T. Senthilvelan | pp: 49-55 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: This review provides some information about various polymer nano composites and also different processing techniques available. Metallurgical and mechanical characterization of the nano composites have been discussed in this work. Tribological properties of various nano filler reinforced polymer composites has been discussed in detail as well. This review outlines brief introduction on importance of wear mechanism map in understanding the wear behavior of polymer nano composites. Polymer nano composite finds vast applications in various industrial sectors such as automobile, aerospace, defense etc. This review also renders short information on various applications of polymer nano composites.
Effect of Ball size on the Characterization of Mg-Zn-Ca alloy Prepared by Mechanical Alloying
M. Thirumurugan, C. Aguilar, D. Guzman | pp: 56-60 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Mechanical alloying is one of the important techniques used to produce the homogeneous alloys and amorphous materials. This paper investigates the effects of different ball sizes to achieve the amorphous phase in Mg-Zn-Ca (Mg66Zn30Ca4) alloy system through the mechanical alloying technique. The compositions of Mg66Zn30Ca4 (at.%) powders are synthesized by using the mechanical alloying for 10 hours in a planetary mill with 10:1 BPR (ball to powder ratio). The two different diameters of ball 6mm and 15mm are used in this dry milling process. It has shown that the 15mm balls produce the good broadened diffracted (halo) peaks than the 6mm balls. The 6mm balls produce more nano (88.82nm) sized crystalline peaks than the 15mm balls.
Wear and Life Characteristics of Al-B4C Nano Graphite Composite
K.A. Varun, K. Rajkumar, A. Gnanavelbabu | pp: 61-65 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Aluminium composites are one of the most widely used composites because of its light weight and weight to strength ratio. They possess important tribological properties and are used in the manufacture of disc pads, brake drums etc. Traditional life tests under normal operating condition would be a time-consuming process due to the longer expected life of the composite and hence accelerated wear testing was carried out to evaluate the life characteristics of the composite. This work focuses on evaluation of tribological performance of stir casted Al-B4C- nano graphite composite under accelerated wear testing methodology using a high temperature pin-on-disc tribometer. The dispersion of the reinforcement in the matrix of the composite and the microstructures were carried out using SEM. Analysis on life characteristics were performed on the time-to-failure data using temperature- non-thermal (T-NT) accelerated life-stress model and time to failure obtained from the accelerated wear testing was extrapolated to normal usage condition. The significant parameters affecting the performance were temperature and pressure.
Influence of Aluminum Oxide Al2O3 Nano Particles Blended with Waste Cooking Oil in the Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics on a DI Diesel Engine
V. Nadana Kumar, N. M. Venkatesh, N. Alagumurthi | pp: 66-71 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: An experimental investigation is carried out to establish the performance and emission characteristics using Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as nano additive in WCO blended with various proportions of nano additives 25ppm, 50ppm and 75ppm respectively. The biodiesel is produced from the WCO by standard transesterification process and subsequently, the nano particles are blended by means of an ultrasonicator to achieve stable suspension. It is observed that the blends are stable which are suitable for the performance test on the compression ignition engine. The characterization study of the nano particles such as SEM is carried out to analyze their morphology. The whole investigation is carried out in a single cylinder DI diesel engine using different proportions of nano additive blended biodiesel. The result shows a considerable enhancement in brake thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption due to the influence of aluminium oxide nanoparticles addition in biodiesel blend.
Lightweight Options for Seat Structure in a Bus
Prashant M Patil, M. Senthil Kumar | pp: 72-77 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: As seat is the most priority component in vehicles while considering the comfort. Factors like ergonomics, safety and smooth ride can be achieved by designing an effective seat structure. Light weighting of vehicles are dominant in present era due to the tremendous CO2 emissions in environment. By specifying various domains like flooring, roof structure, seats etc. light-weight can be achieved. As earlier mentioned, seat gives us high weight reduction potential for light weighting purpose. The modeling is done by considering the ergonomics, safety, weight and cost related issues. Further, study elaborates the analysis regarding static, vibrational and durability responses. Different strength parameters like bending stiffness, tensile stiffness and torsional stiffness are considered. By using composite material, 41.5 % weight reduction is achieved with 33.6 % considerable cost increase.
Finite Element Analysis of Radiator Fins to increase the Convection Efficiency of Radiator by using Al Alloy, Cu and Brass Material
K. Priyadharshini | pp: 78-82 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Radiator is a device which is used as cooling system in combustion engine by convection heat transfer method, in radiator the temperature of the water at entry of the tube is high when compared to the exit, so we predict the radiation in every sq mm by ANSYS and select the suitable alloy of brass to increase the radiation efficiency by force convection and free convection. Cooling performance is compared between automobile and aircraft radiator. This paper reports a study carried out using 3-D modeling and finite element analysis for radiator. Pro-E was used for 3-D modeling then by neutral file format the model was imported in to ANSYS. Here the solid model was converted in to finite element model Boundary conditions such as maximum temperature of the cylinder, convective heat transfer coefficient, ambient temperature and material properties such as thermal conductivity are used as set of parameters for the program. Heat flux and temperature profiles were used to measure the efficiency.