Volume 08 Issue 01
Review Study on Properties of Nanocomposite Materials for Aerospace Applications
Ankit Kumar Mishra, J. V. Muruga Lal Jeyan | pp: 01-07 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: The polymeric nanomaterials play an important role in aerospace industry for different parts to be used in aircrafts, bombers and space launch vehicles. These materials have higher tensile strengths as compared to other materials on macro as well as micro levels. Poly-composite nanomaterials involve nano fillers isolated in it for better adhesive properties. This review paper deals with the study of properties such as weight reduction, thermal characteristics, electronic properties and impact toughness that are responsible for nanocomposites to resist at alternative operating conditions for structural arrangements and performances. The properties of materials depend on several factors such as thermal conductivity, glass transition temperature, strengths, resistance etc. that are responsible for the variation in composite matrices.
Performance of Cement Grouts and their Applications
Yogita Gaude, K. G. Guptha, T. Mohan | pp: 08-14 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Cement grouts are extensively used in many of the construction areas such as coatings for prestressing strands/tendons, repair, and rehabilitation of masonry and RCC structures, grouting of soil, etc. They comprise a fluid mixture of cement, sand if used, water, and possibly, admixture(s) along with non-shrink additives. They are commonly used because such grouts possess higher compressive strength. Their rheology and properties can be easily modified by varying the mix proportions and dosages of the various components. Cement grouting is used on large-scale applications for grouting of cable ducts of prestressed bridges to fill in the voids or gaps between ducts and prestressing steel. These structures are vulnerable to deteriorations and damages such as strength and durability losses which occur due to corrosion and breaking of prestressing tendons/strands resulting from inadequate grouting and/or chloride attacks from airborne salts, use of deicing salts, or even the use of sea sand in the concrete. Therefore, it is very much essential that this passive layer i.e. grout should be properly mixed and grouting should be carried out with utmost precautions. Proper material proportioning, mixing and placement is a must so that grout can fulfill the required properties after hardening. Pure cement grout bleeds thus lowering the w/c ratio but increasing strength. Thus, to improve its rheological properties like bleeding, shrinkage, strength, certain admixtures like Cebex 100, Cebex 200 and Cebex EN or equivalent will be added and their properties will be evaluated. This research intends to investigate the performance of cementitious grouts based on dosage and other additives at a major River Bridge Project in Goa.
Effects of Ferrous ion as Impurity in Mix-Water on the Setting Time of Oilwell Cement Slurry in High-Pressure, and High-Temperature Environment
Sunday Igbani | pp: 15-26 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: The effects of heavy metals in mix-water on the setting time of cement slurries have been investigated, to design acceptable ST of cement slurries; but, still there are reported cases of cement slurry ST failures. This may be as a result of the exclusion, of investigating the impact of ferrous ion in mix-water on setting time. Consequently, this research paper investigated the effects of ferrous ion as impurity in mix-water on the ST of slurries in high-pressure, and high-temperature environment. To accomplish this, sampled mix-water from the study area, Kolo Creek, were subjected to water analysis, using the American public health association drinking water test methods. The results revealed that, ferrous ion in high concentration was found presence in each of the mix-waters, when compared with the world health organisation threshold. These mix-waters were used to formulate slurries of 0.44 water-to-cement ratio. These slurries were subjected to ST tests using the CEMSET approach. In general, the results demonstrated that, high concentration of ferrous ion in mix-water, with the collaborating synergistic effects of HPHT accelerated the ST, which makes the cement slurry, to set-faster. This suggest that high concentration of ferrous ion induced the exothermic reaction of C3A during hydration.
Solar Cells: A pathway through solar energy nanomaterials
Ajay Kumar, Ranjana Jha | pp: 27-39 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Photo voltaic devices generate electricity directly from sun light via an electronic process that occur in semiconductor. Multiple thin film layers are contained by thin film solar cells. The thickness of thin film layers are very less. Thin film cell functioning and structure is similar to that of normal silicon wafer cells. Semiconductor is considered as the photovoltaic cell’s basic component. When semiconductor is doped with phosphorus it results in generation of free electrons in large amount while doping with indium, gallium or boron results in development of vacancy which is known as hole. Photo voltaic cell is formed with the combination of p type and n type materials. In the absence of light, only few atoms get excited and moves across the junction. Due to this, across the junction there exists a small voltage drop. Whereas in presence of light, more atom get excited and moves across junction which result in large current at the output. Furthermore, a rechargeable battery is used to store this current and depending on the needs, it can be utilized for various applications. This chapter focus on the fabrication and structure of different types of solar cell. Challenges and future scope of various solar cells are also discussed.
Predicting the Seismic Response o f Reinforced Concrete Structures Using Artificial Neural Networks
Deepthy S Nair, Beena Mol M | pp: 40-45 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: The implementation of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) in the prediction of seismic behavior of Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures once revealed to seismic events is described. An ANN system is developed trained and validated leveraging the existing evaluation details obtained from the relevant documentation on the RC structural elements. Studies pertaining to measure the magnitude of vibration-induced structural damages involve using the Finite Element Method (FEM) model . FEM is appropriate while evaluating a limited number of defined structural elements while is ineffective for wider assets. Influenced by these limitations, the model employed Artificial Neural Networks to introduce a specific model for estimating earthquake-induced damages. Modeling earthquakes technology is a compute complex domain whereby ANNs could be employed during stationary or adaptive loads to simulate the architectural response. Performance Based Design (PBD) is the latest concept in structured framework earthquake engineering wherein structural efficiency is evaluated for numerous risk scales, demanding considerable computational requirements. ANNs’ projected structural contribution could be included in the PBD model while conducting comprehensive analyzes with a view to minimizing unnecessary computational costs . The ANN’s efficiency was tested utilizing multiple scenarios, and thus the ANN was determined to be equipped to predict damages effectively.
COVID-19 Lockdown on the Intersection of Work and Life of Urban School Teachers
Auslien Nanci JR, Velmurugan VP | pp: 46-51 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic is the infectious disease that causes a serious threat to the world. The aim of the study is to analyze the challenges faced by the urban school teachers during the period of COVID-19 lockdown in professional and personal life. Although schools in India are temporarily closed, most of the schools are opting for online teaching. However many urban schools do not provide online facility, due to poor infrastructure of the organization. Meanwhile it affects the teaching process and the education of students. This study highlights the challenges faced by the urban school teachers in online teaching and the effect of lockdown on the intersection of work and life of urban school teachers. The result of the study indicates a negative relationship between the COVID-19 lockdown on the intersection of work and life of urban school teachers.
Design and Analysis Of FDM 3D printing nozzle
Ketan R Lute, Prof. Vaibhav Kulkarni | pp: 52-56 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: FDM process is increase day by day in industrial sector. The purpose of this project is to find different geometrical shapes of nozzle outlet which can be used to make decorative products also to find strength of the product. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is the low cost additive manufacturing (AM) process uses polylactic acid (PLA) materials to fabricate prototype parts from a CAD & solid works model. The melt flow through nozzle is studied in terms of the pressure drop, nozzle outlet velocity and axial temperature is studied by varying material property and nozzle geometry.
Design and Analysis of Local Passenger Vehicles Front Bumper Beam for Low Speed Impact
Ajaykumar S. Sonawane, Dr. Dinesh N. Kamble, Amol Birajdar | pp: 57-62 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: The bumper beam is most important part for absorbing impact during front collision of vehicles. Which protect the vehicles parts such as engine, radiator, and other important parts during impact condition. In this paper, to improve the crashworthiness of vehicles, the most important parameters such as material and shape are studied. The paper presents a dynamic analysis of passenger vehicles front bumper beam. The displacement is studied for finding the best replacement for HS steel material. The analysis is done using different materials such as H S steel, aluminium are conventional materials, GMT, LFRT AND KLFRT as composite materials and bumper beam with adding vertical stiffeners to improve its stiffness. The low-velocity simulation of bumper beam was done as per the standards of automotive stated in E.C.E. United Nations Agreement, Regulation no. 42, 1994. ARAI India accepted this regulation, so it is used for study. Frist the steel is use as the base material and other materials compared with steel. From these comparison found that GMT is the best replacement for steel. A 3D model of the bumper beam is made using Solidworks modelling software. Then meshing is done in HYPERMESH. And analysis is done in Ls-Dyna.
Design Improvement In Heavy Vehicle Truck Chassis By Analysis Using CAE Tools For Achieving Strength And Stability
Harshal V. Pachgade, Dr. Dinesh N. Kamble, Amol Birajdar | pp: 63-70 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Chassis signifies the different frame parts of the vehicle on the other hand it also denotes the main structure of vehicle body. The chassis frame acts as the main supporting member for different components as well as the payload of the vehicle. It should be stiff adequate to resist shock, twist and vibrations in addition with some stresses cause by sudden activities like breaking, irregular road conditions and some forces obtain by components. So, strength and stiffness are important criteria while designing chassis. After analyzing different research studies, it should be found that there is the scope in modification of chassis with different factors like stress, deformation and weight by varying cross section in addition with materials. This research elaborates about structural analysis of heavy vehicle chassis under maximum load and dynamic analysis of modified chassis by calculating its natural frequencies to check failure due to resonance. For analysis purpose, dimensions of TATA 2518TC truck chassis is used by considering two main cross sections namely, “C” section with existing material that is Structural steel ST37 and “I” with AISI-4130 material. Three dimensional solid models of truck chassis was designed in SolidWorks software. The meshing part has been done on HyperWorks and finally finite element analysis was done on Ansys.
Design and Analysis of Contactless Support in Multi-Channel Cryoline using Magnetic Levitation
Sandeep Kumar Shah, Dr R G Kapadia, R O Paliwal | pp: 71-76 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Conduction and radiation are two significant sources of heat loss in vacuum jacketed cryogenic transfer lines. Radiation because of a temperature difference between a warm outer pipe and a cold inner pipe and conduction because of the heat transfer through supports. The fixed supports are the necessary part as it provides the vacuum enclosure within the cryoline. But the sliding support, used to carry the weight of the section of pipe to prevent the bending of pipe, can be replaced with a magnetic levitation system to minimize the conduction heat loss in the cryoline. Support with a magnetic levitation system is designed here to replace conventional sliding supports. Utilization of Halbach arrays of the Nd2Fe14B (N42) and Ceramic magnets (grade 8) to perform the levitation. For the levitation of the process pipes, about 6.7×105 N/m3 force density is required. The numerical simulation is done using the Solidworks EMS tool.
Integrated Taguchi – Fuzzy Approach for Optimize the Vibration Characteristics in End Milling Parameters on Al 6061-T6
T. Mugilan, M.S. Aezhisai Vallavi, N. Sridhar, K.S. Yokesh | pp: 77-84 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Vibration of cutting tool and workpiece while machining of material leads to poor surface finish, low process stability and less tool life time. Therefore, it is required to optimize the cutting parameters based on vibration measurement to achieve the better surface finish and improve cutting tool life time. In present work, the cutting parameters like cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut have been conducted on Aluminium hybrid metal matrix composite material Al 6061-T6. The experiment is designed using Taguchi L9 orthogonal array and the model development is done using Fuzzy Logic control in MATLAB software. Acceleration in Feed direction and axial direction were obtained from the Experimental vibration measurement on workpiece with different level of cutting parameters. The results obtained Vibration experiment and fuzzy predicted values are visualized.
Modelling and optimization of Laser drilling on CFRP composite: an integrated approach using RSM based PSO
Yadvendra Kumar Mishra, Sanjay Mishra, S.C. Jayswal | pp: 85-92 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) composites forms of fiber orientated reinforced polymer composites, have a lot of potential in the automotive, aerospace, and marine industries due to high strength to weight ratio. In conventional drilling many problems occur when drilled a CFRP composites such as delamination on surface, fiber cut, voids formation, fiber bending and fiber pull-out, etc. So, to minimize these defects a non-conventional thermal based Nd: YAG laser drilling process is used. By optimizing drilling parameters, a good quality holes are produced. There are several critical process parameters involved in the laser drilling process. So, find a precise hole during the process is extremely difficult. The current experiment has five important laser drilling process parameters into an account to achieve the best responses: top hole circularity (THC), hole taper (TH). To find the best drilling parameters, an integrated optimization techniques that is particle swarm algorithm (PSO) based on the methodology of the surface response (RSM) was used. Result shows that maximization of hole circularity the optimal settings are pulse current of 250 A, Pulse width of 3 ms, gas pressure of 5 kg/sq.cm, workpiece thickness of 1 mm and incident angle of 0 degree with best fitness value is 0.8411 whereas for minimization of hole taper (TH) optimum setting are pulse current of 150 A, Pulse width of 3 ms, gas pressure of 6 kg/sq.cm, workpiece thickness of 3 mm and incident angle of 0 degree with best fitness value is 0.4109. By applying PSO algorithm top hole circularity (THC) increased by 7.40 % and hole taper (HT) decreased by 63 % comparatively to RSM model. So, PSO algorithm gives better result.
Performance Analysis of Advance PCM with Activated carbon powder by the use of Evacuated Tube Solar Collector
Varun Kumar Singh, Devesh Kumar, Sanjay | pp: 93-97 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: This paper experimentally investigates effects of doping active carbon powder and titanium dioxide in paraffin wax. Paraffin wax (PCM) is most promising method of energy storage. The work is concern about performance enhancement methods of PCM as latent heat storage system. Performance can be improved by doping high thermal conducting material and high pores material to ensure better heat flow and availability of more surface area respectively. Thermal charging and discharging, Decrement in relative humidity of ambient air are parameters considered for study. Three samples are prepared by mixing paraffin wax with active carbon having three different mass concentrations of 20%, 26% and 34%. Titanium Dioxide is added to every sample by a fixed mass concentration of 1%. Experimental data, presented in this paper, has helped to find conclusive results.
Automatic Theft Detection System At Smart Home Using AI
Mohammed Sherooq Ali, Sreeju A, Shifa Reem, Jasna, Neethu Mathew | pp: 98-104 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: These days there is a huge rise in number of burglary. Due to this security is given high preference and most of the people choose the idea of installation of CCTV. The human monitoring is very inconvenient and requires the need of work force and there is always a chance for human errors, complete focus throughout is not possible pressurizing the need of computerized monitoring with high accuracy. In order to reduce human effort and to ensure better accuracy we propose an automatic theft detection system, that can detect theft and inform authorities automatically.
In this research, we present a complete automatic theft detection system that can detect presence of intruder in the premises. This system captures the image of any person getting into the premises and then extracts various facial parts such as their eyes, nose, mouth. If authenticated as criminal from the database of police then an alert message is sent to the owner and the police. The main concept is to create a safe environment for people to live in.
Neural Network Based Disease Detection and Classification in Citrus Plants
A.N.P.S.S. Niharika, P. Salini | pp: 105-112 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Agricultural productivity is one on which the Indian economy largely depends. In agricultural field, most of the research work is on the disease detection and classification in plants as plants plays an important role in human life. It is difficult to find and treat as the disease in plants is completely natural. In this regard, there is a need of an automatic disease detection and classification system with technology which can be useful to reduce oversight work on large plants. It can also recognize disease symptoms, i.e., even after they appear on the leaves of plants at a very early stage.
Neural network has been widely used for detection and classification of diseases in plants. In this article, the plant disease region is segmented and extracted from the leaves of the plants using Fuzzy C Means clustering. The wavelet transformation, whose approximation values are extracted for further processing in order to extract the texture characteristics with Gabor with Principal Component Analysis. Features such as mean value, standard deviation, and entropy of the obtained sub bands are calculated and stored in a feature vector. The extracted features are fed into the Probabilistic Neural Network classifier to classify the disease of the affected plant or not. The proposed technique is tested on Citrus plant leaves image for detection and classification of citrus plant namely healthy, anthracnose, black spot, canker, scab and melanoses. The proposed technique achieves 93% classification accuracy when compared to the existing method on citrus plant.
Effect of Electrical Discharge Machining Parameters on Machining Characteristics of Metal Matrix Composites
Dhirendra Pratap Singh, Bipul Kumar Singh, Ankit Kumar Maurya, Sanjay Mishra | pp: 113-117 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Parametric analysis of die-sinking Electric Discharge Machining (EDM) of 10 wt.% alumina particulate reinforced Al6061 matrix composite has been performed using one-parameter at-time- approach. Individual effect of change of voltage, pulse-on-time, peak current and duty factor on output response i.e., material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (Ra) has been analysed with detail discussion on the physics of the EDM process. Experiments were performed by varying one input parameter while keeping other parameters at constant value during die sinking EDM of MMC using copper electrode. The analysis revealed that increase of pulse on time increases the Ra but decreases the MRR. MRR increases with the increase of duty factor, but it bears nonlinear relationship with Ra. The increase of voltage initially decreases the Ra but at higher values Ra values increases exponentially. The increase of peak current always increases the MRR and Ra.