Volume 07 Issue 02
A Technical Review on Effect of Spray Angles and Characteristics for a Pintle Injector
Ankit Kumar Mishra, Janani Kavipriya. V.S | pp: 30-36 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: The pintle injectors are one of the most important part also known as propellant injector is used in liquid rocket engines. This injector consists of movable pintle, annular nozzle, fuel injection port and a centre pintle nozzle. The spray phenomenon and flow characteristics resulting in formation of spray pattern shows out the effect of spray angles, droplet size and spray boundaries. Total momentum ratio (TMR) and spatial distribution of sprays plays a key role in order to influence the spray angles whereas opening distance, axial velocity and radial velocity is responsible for flow characteristics of injector. The review study of this paper is to show the influence of spray angles and characteristics such as flow as well as combustion on spray images, droplet size, momentum ratio, opening distance and SMD distributions which affect the injector geometry.
Development of Renewable Energy Based Bridge Safety Monitoring And Controlling System Using IoT
Shivam, Utkarsh Karwa, Kundan Kumar | pp: 37-42 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: India is highly populated and there is a continuous need to focus on expanding the infrastructure and maintaining or renewing the old ones. One such example is roads and bridges. Every year; we come across news stating the collapsing of the bridge due to excessive load on it. Heavy load vehicles such as trucks, vans are the main reason for the excess weight on the bridge. Thousands of people lose their lives because of bridge collapse every year. This is an entirely avoidable disaster. To ensure the safety of people, we introduced a bridge monitoring system. This will be made possible with the help of the WIFI module, Arduino controller. To make it energy-efficient and pollution-free, we are using solar energy as the source of energy. The usage of the IoT module in the study will help in getting real-time data.
Design and Fabrication of Walking Assistant
Akhil K A, Anantha Krishnan, Abhishek P, Achu S, Rajesh Menon B | pp: 43-49 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Probably the most common measure of mobility and freedom is the ability to walk. Unfortunately, due to ageing or chronic health problems, a significant portion of the population is losing mobility. As a result, structures that assist in the preservation of mobility for those in need are desperately needed. To provide walk assistance, most current devices rely on driven systems that apply complementary torques around lower limb joints. Nonetheless, they are not limited by financial constraints. As a result, passive alternatives are being built, demonstrating the feasibility of simple, low-cost devices. This paper proposes a prototype for the creation of a passive exoskeleton that improves stability during stance and walking in line with this advancement. In this model of assistive limb, the required torque on the hip and knees for gait are analyzed and appropriate DC motor are mounted on links attached to the thigh and shank. The direction of rotation of the motor is controlled by a PIC board. The motor provides appropriate torque on the links of the model. A 12 V battery is used to power up the motors. The passive exoskeleton is fabricated mainly by mild steel. This paper focuses on eco-support architecture and electronic control systems, offering food for thought and shedding light on exoskeletons’ future.
Design, Simulation and Analysis of Self-Locking Mobile Hoist
Rajesh Menon Balakrishnan, Vithul Nath V, Prathyun P K, Ramees Roshan M, Sarath Haridas | pp: 50-56 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: In most of the industries and construction fields weight lifting is usually carried out with the help of machines like chain hoists, forklifts and even electric cranes. A majority of these machines require an external power to operate which is provided mainly in the form of electric or pneumatic drive. These machines would be difficult to use in cases where such drive mode is remotely accessible. This paper deals with the design, simulation and analysis of a self-locking mobile hoist which can be used in situations where there is unavailability of the above-mentioned power drives. The machine is designed to lift a weight of 60 Kg. By incorporating a worm and worm wheel in the design, the effort required for lifting the weight could drastically be reduced. Worm and worm wheel also helps in making the design self-locking. Modelling of the machine was done using Solid Works software and the simulation of it for the designated weight was carried out on Fusion 360. Various components of the machine were designed based on the load and static analysis was carried out for the prominent components. The proposed design was able to lift a weight of 60 Kg and was simulated satisfactorily.
Property Enhancement of Epoxy using Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes
Logeswari G, Anand Joy, Prathap Haridoss, Manojkumar K | pp: 57-62 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Recently airplanes are manufactured with increased percentage of composite materials. The composites are nonconductive materials. Therefore, increasing the electrical conductivity of the composites is necessary in case of lightning strike. The matrix phase of all the composites used in aircrafts is polymer based, particularly epoxy is used. In this paper epoxy matrix is reinforced with multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The epoxy resin used is Araldite GY257 (based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A) which is mixed with hardener Aradur140 (based on polyamidoamine) in the weight ratio of 2:1. Magnetic stirrer method is used to prepare the samples. MWNTs were added into the resin in small amounts to prepare samples containing 0, 0.5, 1 and 2.5 wt% of CNT. Dispersion of multiwalled carbon nanotube in the samples has been examined using characterization techniques SEM and TEM. The electrical conductivity and surface hardness of the samples are found using four probe test and shore D hardness test respectively. Surface hardness of the samples is increased with increase in weight percentage of MWNT in epoxy. Electrical conductivity of the samples also increases with increase in wt% of MWNT. The highest conductance achieved is 0.009 S with 1 wt% of MWNT in epoxy sample.
Design and Implementation of Secondary Air Brake System Using Engine Exhaust Gas
Sethuraman B.L, Sakthivel R, Gopalakrishnan E, Shree Ram Vishaal S | pp: 63-68 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: In many automobiles the engine exhaust is probably wasted and it mixes with the atmosphere. The waste heat recovered from the exhaust gas released by the internal combustion (IC) engines are used as used as an assisting system to perform several functions. In this project the exhaust gas is used to assist the air braking system. The components like turbine, compressor, solenoid valve and braking assembly are modelled by using the solidworks after the found the design requirements. The structural setup of the project contains a turbine placed in the path of exhaust followed by a connection to store the energy generated by the rotation of the turbine. The generated electric power from the turbine used to compress the air in the DC compressor then supplied the pneumatic power to the air braking system. The exhaust gas was effectively utilized to perform the air braking system in addition to the conventional braking system and found the improvement in the braking performance.
Effect of Cavity Dimensions and Position in a Strut-Cavity Based Scramjet Combustor
Sumesh V, Saran S Dharan | pp: 69-77 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: The aerothermodynamic processes in SCRAMJET propulsion system are complex and closely related. A significant challenge in these systems is to achieve an efficient air-fuel mixing and also to complete the combustion process within a very short residence time and finite combustor length. The combustion process cannot be initiated until mixing has been achieved at its stoichiometric level. In this study, a strut-cavity staged injection concept with a strut injector as the first stage and a cavity injector as the second stage injection is used. Cavity combustor can achieve flame-holding by the generation of subsonic recirculation region that ensures sufficient residence time. The dimensions of the cavity and its position in the mixing chamber are varied to obtain different configurations. These configurations are computationally investigated with both air and hydrogen as secondary injectant. Parameters such as momentum flux, degree of mixing, stagnation pressure loss and mixing efficiency are calculated for each configuration to analyse the extent of mixing. The position of the cavity inside the chamber is very important in determining the effectiveness of the mixing process. Cavities positioned at distance greater than x= 15 mm showed higher mixing rate than other positions. As the cavity length increases mixing efficiency also increases. Whereas, when the cavity depth increases the momentum flux distribution becomes more uniform indicating a uniform mixing. For a bigger cavity, higher mixing is achieved when positioned closer to the inlet of the mixing chamber. Whereas, smaller cavities can achieve faster mixing rate when positioned further downstream into the chamber. The mixing efficiency values are also in good agreement with the degree of momentum mixing values which indicate that for both hydrogen and air injection gives similar results regarding the cavity configurations.