Volume 05 Issue 01
Effect of Photo-Limitation on Growth of Microalgae in Tubular Photobioreactor
Sundar R. Nath, M. Mubarak, A. Bhowmik, A. Shaija | pp: 01-05 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: This paper presents a mathematical model for light-limited growth of microalgae in tubular photobioreactor. Here, the specific growth rate of microalgae has been evaluated by integrating the steady-state radiative transfer equation with the Monod equation. The Monod equation also considers a maintenance term featuring lost/unused light energy due to cell death and/or the presence of non-growth components in the culture. The model assumed (a) the incident light intensity to be normal to the surface of the tube, (b) uniform distribution of intensity along the length, and (c) negligible variation of light intensity over time. Overall, this study aimed to develop a predictive model which could prove useful for improving a controlling unit of industrial photobioreactors. The study revealed the maximum light intensity at the periphery of the tube and minimum light intensity at the centre of the tube. Consequently, the growth of microalgae was relatively large at the periphery of the tube and low at the centre of the tube.
Design, Analysis and Fabrication of Walking Assistant for physically challenged people
S. Sakthi Sundharam, V. Sathish Kumar | pp: 06-11 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: In recent years, exoskeletons have become one of the key areas in research. Even though many successful design of exoskeleton have done by many companies and research scholars, walking assistance for children are less and infrequent and expensive. This paper aims at design of walking assistant device for physically challenged children ages at 6 to 15 years old in an economical price. It can be used for two purposes: as walking practice and walking assistive device. The key feature of project is use of Arduino board as microcontroller to control stepper motor (NEMA34) linked to joints and links, which swings to make leg movements. It can be used with both SMPS and battery according to the convenience of the user.
Dry Sliding Tribological Studies on Zinc-Aluminium Alloys with varying Aluminium Contents using Pin-on-Disc Tribometer
Anand Mani, V.V. Manikandan, P.K. Rajendrakumar | pp: 12-19 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Zn-based alloys with different Al-content was prepared using Conventional melting and casting approach. Rockwell and Vickers’s hardness tests were performed in which hardness increased with increase in Al-content. SEM-EDS analysis of ZA8.19 alloys showed coarse η-Zn rich dendrite and α+η eutectoid colonies, ZA10.5 revealed finer η-Zn rich dendrites but more α+η eutectoid than ZA8.19 while ZA19.43 revealed α-Al rich dendrites surrounded by α+η eutectoid. Pin-on-Disc Tribometer at a speed of 0.5 m/s and 2 m/s was used to test sliding distance over a load range of 10 N and 70 N upto trial distance of 1000 m and observed that steady-state wear was reached before 1000 m of sliding in all three cases and thus was fixed for all tests. Load test was conducted over wide range of 10 N, 30 N, 50 N, and 70 N with 0.5 m/s as sliding speed and found that as Al-content increased in Zinc alloys, the weight loss increased with the increase in load with some exceptional cases. In sliding speed test, conducted over a range of 0.5 m/s, 1 m/s, 1.5 m/s and 2 m/s with load 70 N, results showed that as the Al-content increased, the weight loss decreased with increase in sliding speed with exceptional case. Overall, ZA19.43 was found to be the most wear resistant material among the three.
Enhancing Human Comfort and Improving Illuminance Level in Smart Class Room through Optimization Approach
V. Thiyagarajan, T. Tamizharasan, N. Senthilkumar, B. Karthikeyan | pp: 20-30 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Energy conservation and management are the keys to use fuel and electrical energy in the most efficient way. Proper energy management can lead to big savings on the operating costs of a building. In this study, a smart class room of an educational building situated in Trichy, Tamil Nadu, India is considered for the energy audit with the aim of reducing energy consumption and better human comfort in terms of illuminance level. The objectives are achieved by replacing the existing CFL lamps with LED bulbs of different power capacity placed in different positions in the room. Taguchi’s Design of Experiment (DoE) is used to design the experiment and a hybrid approach of combing Taguchi’s Signal-to-Noise (S/N) ratio and Grey relational analysis is applied to obtain the best illuminance level with reduced energy utilization. Using statistical tool, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), it is found that by increasing the number of LED bulbs with moderate power capacity improves illuminance in the smart class room.
A Critical Review of Wear and Machinability Studies of Aluminium Metal Matrix Composite
K. Gajalakshmi, N. Senthilkumar | pp: 31-40 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Aluminium metal matrix composites is tribute to satisfy the sophisticated engineering applications which were initially first generation metal matrix composite and now it reached a destination that made it to call as hybrid aluminium metal matrix composite (AMMCs – a newer generation metal matrix composite. They were used in multifarious fields as a result of their good tribological, physical and mechanical properties. On behalf of the peculiar demands such as enhanced hardness, fatigue, stiffness, corrosion, strength, creep and wear properties in materials, AMMCs are selected excluding the traditional engineering materials. AMMCs’ properties are governed by the type of reinforcement particulates, matrix material and the method for processing them. This paper delineates the pandect of behavior of different particulates reinforced aluminium alloy Al 6061. The wear properties and machinability characteristics of AMMCs are anatomized exclusively for greater understanding of these novel composite materials.
Review of Friction Stir Welding Tools
K. Manigandan, S. Senthilkumar | pp: 41-51 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Friction Stir Welding is a solid state welding process that can be applied to non ferrous materials like aluminium, magnesium, copper, brass and zinc and different joint designs such as butt joint, T-butt joint, corner joint and lap joint. Focus of this review paper is to analyze and discuss the outlines of tool pin and shoulder geometry, tool material and influence of tool on mechanical and metallurgical properties. Tool design, material and welding parameters play vital role on mechanical and metallurgical properties of weld joints, defect free weld, better material flow, friction heat and finer grain size. H13 is used more than any other tool steel in tooling applications due to excellent combination of high toughness and fatigue resistance. Higher mechanical properties and better intermixing were obtained by tapered threaded pin. The scrolled shoulder and triflute pin was most effective shape for welding at high speed with increased amount of plastic deformation and stirring of the workpiece. The microstructural zone, hardness profile and tensile strength are depending upon shoulder size and pin profile.