Volume 04 Issue 01
Effectiveness of Using Activated Carbon as Adsorbent for Copper Removal from Synthetic Wastewater
Anna Jesil, A.M. Saravanan, Zainab Hassan Ahmed Al Kumzari | pp: 01-04 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Adsorption is an attractive technology for the treatment of effluent from heavy metal industry. The removal of copper from synthetic wastewater by adsorption on activated carbon prepared from date palm seed was investigated at room temperature 250C. The optimum adsorbent dosage, stirring speed, initial concentration, temperature, contact time and pH was determined as 0.9 g/l, 120 rpm, 100 ppm, 250C, 75 min, and 5 respectively, which give removal efficiency in the range (80 – 90%). Experimental data was fitted with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Freundlich model had higher correlation value (R2) of 0.941 which fitted the equilibrium adsorption process more than Langmuir model for the experimental work. The BET surface area and total pore volume of activated carbon prepared by activation with phosphoric acid were identified to be 71.5674m2/g and 0.024281 cm³/g respectively.
Effect of Variation in Tool Rotational Speed on Tensile Strength and Hardness of Dissimilar Friction Stir Spot Welded Al/Cu Joints
S. Siddharth, T. Senthilkumar | pp: 05-09 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Dissimilar material joining possess much difficulty due to the differences in mechanical and metallurgical properties such as density, melting point and thermal conductivity. However solid state material joining techniques such as friction stir spot welding can be used to spot join dissimilar materials without much difficulty. In this investigation, dissimilar joints using aluminum Al 5083 alloy and commercial copper C10100 were made using friction stir spot welding. The important friction stir spot welding process parameters were varied and the effects of changes in tool rotational speed at constant plunge depth and dwell time were observed. The effect of the changes in tool rotational speed on the tensile properties and interface micro hardness of the joints were evaluated.
Bearing Shaft Misalignment Estimation using Acoustic Signal Processing
P. Gopal, T. Senthilkumar, N. Raja Sekar, Pon. Azhagiri | pp: 10-13 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: The main aim is to estimate the misalignment in bearing shaft by signal processing of acoustic signal. There are many signal processing technique such as Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) function, Discrete wavelet transform, Morlet wavelets, and Wavelet transform among them Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) function is used for analysis purpose. Acoustic Emission (AE) is being extensively used as a Non Destructive Technique (NDT) for diagnosis of rotating components or bearing systems. Design and fabrication has been done for experimental set up to generate the acoustic signals. Three different shafts are used such as Aluminium 6061, Mild Steel, and Stainless Steel 304 for analysis purpose. Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) function is used to represent the Acoustic signal at different levels of misalignment by
using MATLAB software. By calculating the energy values and angle of contact for corresponding acoustic signals and compare the results among different shafts.
Thermal Behavior and Pyrolytic Kinetics of De-Oiled Jatropha Seed Cake
J. Thiagarajan, P.K. Srividya, P. Balasubramanian | pp: 14-19 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: The disposal of cake residues after the oil extraction from Jatropha curcas (jatropha) seed as a waste raises serious environmental concerns due to oily and toxic nature. The aim of the present work is to study the effects of heating rate on thermochemical conversion of de-oiled jatropha seed cake (DJSC). Initial physicochemical characterization of DJSC was carried out by proximate and ultimate analysis. The kinetics of the slow pyrolysis behavior was investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at various heating rates of 10, 20 and 30oC/min. The results of TGA revealed that onset and offset temperature of the devolatilization step were shifted and the activation energy increased with increasing heating rates. The activation energies of DJSC were found in the range of 14.14 to 24.74 kJ/mol by applying isoconversional methods to pyrolysis data. The outcome of the study could assist in proposing the appropriate blending of DJSC for efficient pyrolysis by varying blending ratios with higher activation energy materials.
Experimental Study using a Low Cost and Versatile 3-Axis CNC Router with Bluetooth Connectivity
Leeba Varghese, Shunmugesh K, Cibin K Biju, Bijo Peter, Cibi Mathew, Samuel Baby Mathew | pp: 20-29 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: The increase in the rapid growth of technology significantly increased the usage and utilization of CNC machines but are expensive. This paper discusses the design aspects and machinability study of Aluminium 5052 using a low cost CNC router cum engraver which is capable of 3-axis simultaneous interpolated operation with less complexity. The added Bluetooth feature makes the machine more user friendly to operate using a smartphone apart from the USB connection. The lower cost is achieved by incorporating the features of a standard PC interface with micro-controller based CNC system in an Arduino based embedded system. After the fabrication experimental trails were conducted to test the machining performance by varying the machining parameters. Taguchi L orthogonal array design of experiment was adopted to carry out the experimental study. Grey Relational Analysis was used to optimise the machining parameters of spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut with multi-performance characteristics of Surface roughness (Ra and Rz) and Material Removal Rate (MRR).
Optimizing the Machining Parameters of Abrasive Water Jet Machining for Polymer Nano composite Containing Tungsten Carbide Nanoparticles
P. Thayananthan, N. Yuvaraj, V. Loganathan | pp: 30-35 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: In this present work experimental investigations were conducted to assess the influence of abrasive water jet machining (AWJM) process parameters on surface roughness (Ra) of glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites. The approach was based on Taguchi’s method and multiple linear regression analysis to optimize the AWJM process parameters for effective machining. It was found that the type of abrasive materials, water jet pressure, standoff distance and abrasive flow rate were the significant control factors and the cutting orientation was the insignificant control factor in controlling the Ra. The models successfully predicted the surface roughness of an AWJ machined glass fiber and epoxy laminate within the limit of this study. The optimal parameters combination was determined. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and F-test were used to check the validity of Multiple Linear Regression mathematical model and to determine the significant parameter affecting the surface roughness. The statistical analysis showed that the mass flow rate was a most dominating parameter on surface roughness in waterjet machining process.
Effect of Process Parameters on Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar AA1100 and AA6082 alloys
G. Sundar raju, K. Sivakumar | pp: 36-41 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: In this study, Microstructure and Mechanical characterization of friction stir welded dissimilar AA1100 and AA6082 Aluminium alloys joints are examined. Welding specimens with dimensions of 4 x 150 x 300 mm are joined in butt position. A tool made up of high alloy steel with a conical cylindrical tool tip profile was used. A shoulder diameter, probe diameter and pin length of 25 mm, 18 mm and 3.7 mm. Microstructure, hardness test, tensile test, was performed. Grain refinement was observed in all three layers across the nugget zone with smaller grains in AA1100 and AA6082 layers. All the obtained joints fractured in the Fusion zone on the AA1100 and AA6082 side during tensile testing, three different speeds parameters used are 1200, 1400 and 1600 rpm among these 1600 rpm provides good tensile strength. The maximum joint strength was attained when welding was conducted with premier welding speed. It was found that the hardness of the dissimilar joints attained intermittent hardness value of AA1100 and AA6082.
Proposal Model Propulsion System suitable for Unidentified Flying Objects for Future Space Travel
Jisuhn Mohan, Bibin Thomas | pp: 42-46 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: The Unidentified flying objects remains a mystery to the whole globe since no clear evidence is there to prove their existence. Though we still believe that, we are not only the ones who lives here and there are others, who are more capable than us which are very well understood by reports giving information about their invasion of Earth. They are supposed to be exhibiting an antigravitational mode of the propulsion system. Here it is dealing with the UFO propulsion system based on Gravitomagnetism, how plasma seems to be the future fuel for us, the steps involved in plasma generation and how it leads to antigravity. Study for significance and characteristic behavior of plasma sheath in advanced physics is carried out.
Installation Time Reduction of Engine Air-Intake Particle Separator
Bharath B.S, Twinky Joseph, Shambhu Prasad | pp: 47-50 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Particle Separator is an instrument used to filter out sand particles from the air through engine air-intake. Particle Separator is installed on the air intake cowling on the helicopter using L-angles, nuts, bolts and anchor nuts, whose position has to be standardized for making Engine Air-intake Particle Separator (EAPS) assembly interchangeable, a template should be used and our project is aiming to design, develop and proving of drill template for Engine Air-intake Particle Separator installation and to reduce cycle time for installation of Engine Air-intake Particle Separator(EAPS).Our project is to reduce cycle time for the installation of Particle Separator in Advanced Light Helicopter.
Proposal for an Interplanetary CubeSat Data Relay Constellation
Aditya Sunil, L. Anantha Raman | pp: 51-58 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Interplanetary and deep space missions that use satellite probes are heavily reliant on line of sight and high gain antennas for data communications over long distances. These missions rely on the Deep Space Network of Earth ground stations located all around the globe to communicate with the satellite or probe for transferring data such as imagery or scientific measurements, and also sending commands to control the craft. Several satellites have become unusable due to the very long data transmission times needed for communicating with them from the earth ground station. There are also time periods where data transmission cannot occur due to the spacecraft being in a ‘blind spot’. To overcome the communication problem, this paper proposes having a series of small ‘Cube Satellites’ to act as data relay satellites to increase the time scientists at ground stations are able to remain in contact with deep space crafts. The proposal is also key to improving the data connectivity between Earth and Mars for uninterrupted future interplanetary data links.
Effect of pH on Biogas Production through Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste
G. Paramaguru, M. Kannan, P. Lawrence | pp: 59-62 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: In the present study, the effect of pH (6, 7 and 8) on the biogas production was investigated experimentally in laboratory scale anaerobic batch bioreactors. The hydraulic retention time taken for digestion is 30 days. The volumetric yield of biogas was noted at regular intervals using water displacement method. The experimental results show that the pH 7 produced higher biogas yield compared to pH 6 and 8. Modified Gompertz model was evaluated for biogas yield and the corresponding kinetic parameters were estimated.
Analysis of Cow dung and Goat Dung with Vegetable waste and Rice Husk in various proportions at Thermophilic Condition
P. Gopal, Azhagiri Pon | pp: 63-66 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: In this study a batch type anaerobic digester is used in order to investigate the possibility of utilization of different type of waste in anaerobic digester at thermophilic condition. The cow dung and Goat dung are separately analyzed at thermophilic condition with vegetable waste and rice husk. There are 5 different setups were made and all are kept at thermophilic condition, in the first stage cow dung is analyzed and secondly goat dung is analyzed. The digesters are filled with wastes at various proportions and allowed to produce biogas. The results were shown that where compared to goat dung, cow dung processed biogas with good quality and with lesser retention time. The setup 2 of cow dung produces biogas with 67 % of methane content, and when the percentage of rice husk increases the quality of biogas is decreased which can be observed from setup 4 and 5 of both cow dung and goat dung. The retention time of all the process is low as because all the setups places at thermophilic condition, this can be seen from setups 1, 2 & 3 of cow and goat dung.
Production of Bioethanol from Salvinia Molesta and its Utilization in Single Cylinder SI Engine
M. Mubarak, Priyank Gupta, A. Shaija, T.V. Suchithra | pp: 67-72 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Higher areal productivity with fast growth rate of microalgae and aquatic weeds makes them as a promising alternative feedstocks for bioethanol production. In this study, S.molesta (aquatic weed) was used for the production of bioethanol using combined pre-treatment and hydrolysis followed by fermentation with yeast. The quantity of bioethanol produced from S.molesta was measured using Potassium dichromate test, distilled under vacuum and ordinary condition, and dehydrated using CaO and found to be 99.12% pure. The physical properties such as density and calorific value of S.molesta bioethanol were 792.2 kg/m3 and 26.12 MJ/kg, respectively. The performance and emission analysis of a single cylinder SI engine was analyzed using E5 (5% vol. S.molesta bioethanol with 95% vol. gasoline) and compared with that of gasoline. The test results showed an increase of 0.3% in brake thermal efficiency for E5. From the emission analysis, reduced emissions of 39 ppm unburned hydrocarbon, 1.55% carbon monoxide and 2% smoke opacity, respectively was observed with E5 at full load. An increase in CO of 0.17% by volume and increase in NOx of 86.7 ppm was observed for E5 at full load.
Biological Significance and Advances in Application of Polyhydroxyalkanoate
A.B. Sathya, V. Sivasubramanian, A. Santhiagu, V.B. Jyothy, R. Sivashankar | pp: 73-88 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: In our daily life for various purposes we use plastics. Even though its properties like low cost, stability, and durability make them more convenient for use, they are nondegradable and leads to greenhouse gas emission or ecological damage. These plastics are being originated from nonrenewable sources and its disposal can cause risk to human health, environment, marine, and wildlife. So that there emanate the necessity for an alternate material that could able to eliminate the problems associated with plastics. Thus more attention of researchers was on biopolymers since it is having lots of properties similar to plastics and is essentially biodegradable. Recently, it is well known that Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) which comes under the family of intracellular biopolymers can replace conventional plastics. They are being produced by various types of bacteria as carbon and energy storage granules inside the cell. As well it’s biodegradable and is considered to be biocompatible in contact with living tissues. PHA haven can be used for various purposes such as food packaging, controlled drug delivery, drug encapsulation, tissue engineering etc. Thus this review focuses on various applications of PHA.