Volume 03 Issue 02
Experimental Investigations on Treatment of Wastewater using Dehydrated Carbon from Date Palm Leaves
Anna Jesil, A.M. Saravanan, Eman Mohammed | pp: 83-88 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Research in the area of wastewater treatment due to increasing shortage of water becomes more intensive in the world. Although, there are many technologies for treatment of waste water such as physical and chemical technology for removal of heavy metals from wastewater including electro-coagulation, membrane filtration, precipitation, flotation and decontamination, they are very expensive. In this research work, a methodology based on adsorption has been developed. Dehydrated carbon material has been synthesized from date palm leaves via sulfuric acid. Acid will cause dehydration via the removal of water. The dehydrated carbon in amounts ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 grams was tested for Zn+2 removals from synthetic waste water prepared from standard solutions and analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The parameters varied were dehydrated carbon dosage, stirring time, stirring speed, initial concentration and pH. Optimum values of initial concentration, stirring time and pH was observed to be 10 ppm, 60 minutes and 3 for Zn+2 removal.
Investigation of Mechanical and Tribological Properties of A356 Alloy Al2O3-SiCp Hybrid Composites through Stir and Squeeze Casting
K. Sekar, M. Manohar, K. Jayakumar | pp: 89-92 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Aluminum alloys are widely used in aerospace and automobile industries due to their low density and good mechanical properties, better corrosion and wear resistance, low thermal coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) as compared to conventional metals and alloys. The present work consists of investigation on the microstructural characterization, mechanical properties and tribological properties of hybrid A356 alloy – Al2O3 –SiCp metal matrix composites (MMCs) fabricated by the combined effect of stir and squeeze casting. The reinforcement is varied as 0.5 and 1.5 wt. % for alumina (Al2O3), while SiC reinforcement is varied for 1 and 4 wt. %. The double shear strength and hardness values are evaluated for all specimens having different weight percentage of reinforcement particles and compared with that of the matrix alloy. The dry sliding tribological tests are carried out using pin-on-disc tribometer by varying the load and the wear is measured in terms of weight loss. Coefficient of friction is obtained by the ratio of friction force to applied load.
Preparation of Tin Oxide Doped Titania Catalyst and their Enhanced Photo Catalytic Activity under Solar Light Irradiation
Radhika R Nair, K. R. Sunaja Devi | pp: 93-98 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Tin oxide (0.5, 1 and 2 mol %) doped titanium dioxide catalysts are prepared by solution combustion synthesis method, using titanium isopropoxide, glycine and stannous chloride as the starting material. The prepared catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and BET Surface area measurement. Total acidity of the prepared catalysts were determined by temperature programmed desorption of ammonia (TPD-NH3). XRD pattern of tin oxide doped titania obtained by calcinations at 873 K indicated that the samples were crystalline with a mixture of anatase and rutile phase. No peaks corresponding to tin oxide in the XRD patterns indicates that the amount of tin is negligible on the surface of titania catalyst. Methylene blue (MB) acts as an environmental pollutant in the dye industry. The photo catalytic activity was evaluated for the degradation of methylene blue under solar light irradiation. The enhancement of photo catalytic activity of titania by a second oxide, has been attributed to an increase in the surface area, change in the crystalline size, the predominant crystalline phase and modification in its band gap energy. Thus, this study synthesizes a visible light photocatalyst with a large surface area.
Explosive Welding of Dissimilar Metals with a Wire Mesh Interlayer
Prabhat Kumar , S. Saravanan, E. Elango, K.Raghukandan | pp: 99-102 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Explosive welding, a solid state welding process, employs a controlled energy of a chemical explosive to force two metals cladded at high pressure. In this study, aluminum and copper plates are explosively welded using stainless steel wire mesh as interlayer at varied loading ratios. Interfacial microstructure reveals a characteristic undulating interface, unique feature in explosive welding process. Maximum hardness is obtained at the interface following sudden impact. Corrosion rate is higher initially and tends to decrease over time, following the formation of layer over the surface. In addition, weldability window, an analytical estimation to predict the nature of interface is developed for Al-Cu explosive welding and the results are correlated with the experimental results.
Fuzzy Logic Approach for Enhancing the Performance of Grinding Process
C.K. Dhinakarraj, P. Vasanthkumar, R. Rajesh Kumar | pp: 103-111 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: This analysis focuses on finding an optimum set of machining parameters in external centerless grinding process by adopting grey relational analysis, coupled with fuzzy logic approach. This hybrid technique is used to determine the grey-fuzzy reasoning grade from the calculated multi-characteristics grey relational grade of surface roughness and roundness error to reduce the fuzziness in output. Experiments are designed using Taguchi’s Design of Experiments (DoE), for three parameters varied through three levels an L9 (33 ) Orthogonal Array (OA) is selected. The optimal level values are determined from the response table and main effects plot and the individual effect of one parameter over another parameter is determined using the interaction plot. Confirmation experiment conducted with the optimum input parameters obtained from grey-fuzzy reasoning grade shows a reduction in surface roughness and roundness error values.
The Effect of Synthetic Diamond Powder on the Mechanical Properties of PEEK
K.A. Varun, K. Rajkumar, K.L. Hari Krishna | pp: 112-115 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: PEEK (Poly Ether Ether Ketone) composites reinforced with ceramic fillers result in the improved thermal, mechanical, electrical and wear resistance are useful to various applications. The exceptional hardness of synthetic diamond and its very low thermal degradation have inherent advantage in mechanical and thermal properties as making it suitable reinforcement for thermal applications specifically heat sinks. The present study deals with incorporating different proportion of synthetic diamond powder in PEEK and evaluating its mechanical properties. This composite manufactured through the powder metallurgy process. It was found that the synthetic diamond powder enhances the mechanical properties significantly and as filler is very effective in improving thermal properties of PEEK. Synthetic diamond dispersion and the microstructure of the fabricated composite were characterized using scanning electron microscope. The thermal decomposition and heat absorbing rate were characterized using thermo-gravimetric analysis. The results are discussed in detail.
Enhancement of β phase Crystal Formation in PVDF/MWCNT Fiber mat Sensor for Strain Sensing Application
J. Freesta Shiny, M.S. Nisha, Dalbir Singh | pp: 116-123 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: In this study, to enhance β phase crystalline formation in poly vinylidene fluoride (PVDF) by introducing Multi wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) at different preposition for strain sensing. β phase gives higher polarity due to its net dipole moment with increased its electrical conductivity and elastic lying. The MWCNT-PVDF fiber mat was fabricated using the electrospinner. The fabricated materials have been characterized by using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). The prepared fiber mat specimens were embedded in the Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP), and the mechanical test had been conducted by three point bending test and tensile test, its corresponding electrical response were monitored. From these results the enhanced β phase crystalline form will give better electrical conductivity and elastic property to sense the damage more accurate.
Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Luffa Cylindrical and Flax Reinforced Hybrid Polymer Composite
P. Sabarinathan, K. Rajkumar, A. Gnanavelbabu | pp: 124-127 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: In this present work the luffa and flax fibers reinforced with epoxy polymer was fabricated and their mechanical properties investigated experimentally. The composite were prepared by three plies where luffa is placed in between the flax mat. Laminates, were prepared by the hand layup technique of size 300*300*4mm. Epoxy LY556 and Hardener HY951 been used as a resin and hardener for the fabrication of composite laminate. Standard tensile, flexural and impact properties of the composite were studied. The experimental result shows that the hybridized bio composite exhibited a higher order of mechanical properties.
A Novel Automated Design Calculating System For Axisymmetric thinwalled structures By Deep drawing process
A. Praveen Kumar, M. Nalla Mohamed | pp: 128-133 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: In this research paper, the various tools used in deep drawing process were designed with a aid of computer-aided design computing system to facilitate the design process and save time. The widely used computer programming language (VISUAL BASIC 8.0) was used to build the computing system, which was linked to Microsoft Excel for retrieving the results. Traditionally, design of deep drawing tools was experience-based, highly complex, and time-consuming task. Selection of suitable size and type of tools plays a vital role in the design process. This research paper exhibits the development of a technique that facilitate in making the design of deep drawing process and computing drawing parameters economical, simple, quicker, and more reliable. The proposed method is capable to automate all major activities of design processes of deep drawing tools such as selection of punch & die components, modeling of die components, and assembly of punch & die.
Optimization of Abrasive Assisted Electrochemical Machining Using Response Surface Methodology
E. Suresh, K. Mahadevan | pp: 134-140 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Electrochemical Machining is one of the non-traditional machining process, which is used for generate complex profiles without inducing vibrations and tool wear. Presently it is used for producing of aerospace components, automotive products, fuel injection systems, semiconductors, dies and molds etc. The most important process parameters of ECM process are feed rate, electrolyte flow rate, voltage, inter-electrode gap, current, electrolyte concentration, tool material and type of electrolyte. The base material used in this study was Aluminium Silicon Carbide (Al-SiC) composite. The process parameters which affect the responses like surface finish, metal removal rate, radial over cut, and tool life. In the present study, responses also largely depend on the physical and electrical properties. Hence, in Metal Matrix Composite material the physical and electrical properties mainly depend on the percentage of reinforcement material. So, that the percentage of reinforcement material is considered as one of the input factor along with the feed rate, voltage and varied within the selected range to study the Material Removal Rate of ECM of Aluminium-silicon carbide composite fabricated through stir casting process. In this work, NaCl (sodium chloride) electrolyte, Copper tool, and silicon carbide (SiC) as abrasive were used. In order to enhance Metal Removal Rate, abrasive particles are added into the electrolyte solution. It is obtained that the added abrasive particles work along with anodic dissolution to enhance the Metal Removal Rate (MRR).
Experimental Studies on Direct Expansion Solar Assisted Heat Pump: An Energy Point View
Lokesh Paradeshi, M. Srinivas, S. Jayaraj | pp: 116-123 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Paper presents experimental and theoretical performance investigation of direct expansion solar assisted heat pump (DXSAHP) in Solar Energy Center at National Institute of Technology Calicut India. And the effect of various parameters such as solar insolation, ambient temperature, collector area, wind speed and as well as design parameters such as pitch of the tube and collector plate thickness are has been theoretically analyzed to understand the system performance. The system mainly includes hermetic compressor for R22, air cooled condenser, expansion value and a flat-plate solar collector of total are 2 m2 acting as an evaporator with refrigerant R22. The experimental values were agreed well with simulation predicated results with average error of 1%. Performance parameter of DX-SAHP shows that compressor power consumption various from 1100 to 1302W, condenser heating capacity of 2.0 to 3.6 kW and system performance EPR in the range of 1.85 to 2.75. Effect of other metrological parameters also discussed.