Volume 01 Issue 01
Effect of Temperature on Anaerobic Co-digestion of Cattle Dung with Lignocellulosic Biomass
Manjula Das Ghatak, P. Mahanta | pp: 01-07 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of temperature on anaerobic digestion of different lignocellulosic biomass such as bamboo dust and saw dust and compare it with the results of fresh cattle dung. Bamboo dust and saw dust were mixed with cattle dung in 1:3 ratio in batch type anaerobic digesters of volume 1000 ml at 35°C, 45°C and 55°C temperatures. At five day interval, 10 ml of digested slurry was taken out from the digesters and tested for total solid and volatile solid contents. Effect of temperature on kinetic rate constant was also studied. It was observed that biogas production increases with temperature. The kinetic rate constant plays a significant role to indicate the digestion process.
Holdup Studies in IFBR for Wastewater Treatment
V. Sivasubramanian, M. Velan, K. Haribabu | pp: 08-15 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: In the present investigation, bed porosity and phase holdups in a three-phase inverse fluidized bed reactor are determined for Newtonian (aqueous solutions of glycerol) and non-Newtonian (aqueous solutions of carboxy methyl cellulose) systems using low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP) particles of different diameters (4, 6 and 8 mm). The gas holdup (εg) and porosity (ε) in the three-phase inverse fluidized bed reactor was observed to increase with an increase in Ug. The solid holdup (εs) and liquid holdup (εl) decreased as the Ug increased for a fixed Ul . The liquid holdup increased with increase in Ul and the gas holdup increased with increase in particle diameter. The effect of liquid concentration on gas holdup and liquid holdup are also studied. Empirical correlations are developed to determine the phase hodups. Modified drift flux model have been presented for the prediction of the phase holdups (solid, liquid and gas) for Newtonian and non-Newtonian systems.
An Hybrid Taguchi -Grey Relational Technique and Cuckoo Search Algorithm for Multi Criteria Optimization in Hard Turning of AISI D3 Steel
N. Senthil kumar, T. Tamizharasan, V. Anandakrishnan | pp: 16-31 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: In this work, under varying machining conditions the performance of multilayered coated carbide inserts are experimentally investigated using a hybrid Taguchi-Grey relational analysis. Two multi-layered coated inserts TiN/TiCN/Al2O3 and TiN/TiCN/Al2O3/TiN are used for turning AISI D3 Die steel. Taguchi‟s mixed level of Design of Experiments (DoE) are used, for machining parameters varied through four levels and coated cutting inserts varied through two levels, an L16 Orthogonal Array (OA) is selected. Experiments were conducted on a CNC turning centre and output responses flank wear, surface roughness and Material Removal Rate (MRR) are determined. For multi-response optimization, initially Signal-to-Noise (S/N) ratio is calculated and then Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) is applied to simultaneously optimize the output responses. Significance of input parameters on the overall grey relational grade is evaluated using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Empirical models are developed for the grey relational grade to predict the output responses using multiple linear regression models. Confirmation experiment performed with the optimum conditions shows a reduction in flank wear and surface roughness with an increase in MRR.
Investigation of dispersion penalty for optical fiber link at different values of fiber dispersion
Gurpreet Kaur, Gurmeet Kaur | pp: 32-35 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Fiber dispersion degrades the performance of optical communication systems by broadening optical pulses as they propagate inside the fiber. This paper demonstrates the effect of dispersion on dispersion penalty at different lengths of fiber for pseudorandom data at the OC-192 rate. This paper shows that the large chirp from directly modulated lasers operating at the OC-192 rate (9.953 Gb/s) has prevented their use in such high data rate systems. Simulation results show power required to achieve the constant bit error rate with the increase in fiber length.
Adsorption of methylene blue dye from surface water onto aquifer material during batch experiments
Shrinishtha Mishra, Pradeep Kumar | pp: 36-40 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: The removal of Methylene Blue (MB) dye from the surface water during river bank filtration (RBF) was studied at 298 K in terms of its adsorption behavior. Aquifer material from the Srinagar RBF site, India was used as a representative of river bank media for the experiments. The textural properties of the aquifer material including surface area, mean pore area and total pore volume were examined from the low-temperature adsorption of nitrogen at 77 K. The conditions for maximum adsorption of the methylene blue dye on aquifer material were optimized. The removal efficiency of dye was obtained above 90% at initial concentration of 2 mg/L. From the kinetic study, the adsorption data followed the secondorder kinetic model (R2 =0.999). Equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, isotherms and the equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm model (R2 =0.99). Thus from lab-scale results, RBF shows a significant barrier for dye transport.
Real Time Nature Disasters of Data Analysis using Tweet
K. Sundharivel, D. Udaya Suriya Rajkumar | pp:41-47 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Twitter is an online social network in which the people can share the real time activity. Here, we discuss the real-time interaction of events such as Weather Forecasting report in Twitter and propose a method to monitor tweets. To finding an event, there are two methods tweets based classifier such as the tweet keywords, and their context. For that, we implement a probabilistic spatiotemporal model for the target event that can find the information and location of the event. We apply particle filtering and twitter uses as a sensor, which are widely used for location estimation. For estimating the location particle filter methods are used. As an application, we develop a weather reporting system for use in Tamil Nadu to know the weather throughout the country. We can detect information about the cyclone with high probability. Our system identifies the information about the weather and detects the information about cyclone and change in the climate and notification is delivered much faster to the register user than other broadcast announcements.
Mechanical Characterization and Tribological Behaviour of Al-Gr-B4c Metal Matrix Composite prepared by Stir Casting Technique
N. Senthilkumar, T. Tamizharasan, M. Anbarasan | pp: 48-59 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: In this work, using stir casting technique 99.85% pure aluminum matrix was reinforced with graphite particles and boron carbide particles to study the effect of graphite and boron carbide reinforcement using mechanical testing and wear behaviour. Different volume fractions of boron carbide viz. 2.5%, 5% and 7.5% are incorporated into the alloy, maintaining the volume fraction of graphite as 2% for all proportions. The distributions of reinforcement are made uniform by using a mechanical stirrer attachment and the various compositions of metal matrix composite are casted for testing. Microstructural characterization studies performed on the different compositions of composite prepared shows a uniform distribution of B4C particles at microscopic scale with less porosity. Mechanical properties such as Micro-Vickers hardness test and compression strength are determined and tribological behaviour of the composite is studied using wear test. With 7.5% reinforcement of B4C particles, the hardness and compression strength are higher and the results of wear test demonstrates an increase in wear resistance with increase in B4C reinforcement.
Content Based Image Retrieval Method using Fuzzy Heuristics
P.E. Rubini | pp: 60-65 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Content based image retrieval (CBIR) refers to image content that is retrieved directly, by which the images with features or containing certain contents will be searched in an image database. The main idea of CBIR is to analyze image information by low level features of an image, which includes color, texture, shape and space relationship of objects etc., and to set up feature vectors of an image as its index. A new CBIR search engine is proposed using three features and similarity is measured and controlled by fuzzy heuristics. CBIR Search Engine relies on the characterization of primitive features such as color, shape, and texture that are automatically extracted from the images. There are several techniques to deal with CBIR problems for retrieving the relevant images. CBIR proposed by using three methods. Colour feature is extracted by using histogram based method, texture feature is extracted by using Gabor filter and shape feature is by moment invariant algorithm. For searching the similar images with the database similarity measure is calculated and is controlled by using fuzzy. Fuzzy similarity measure is implemented by using mamdani fuzzy inference method. The use of these three algorithms ensures that the image retrieval approach produces images which are relevant to the content of an image query.
Computation of Exhaust Gas Constituents of Diesel Engine
V. Shankar, Cyriac Sebastian | pp: 66-76 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Focus on this paper is to develop an analytical tool from first principles for free energy minimization technique to aid as a design tool for diesel engines operating on diesel fuel and oxidizer being atmospheric air. It is emphasized in this work that understanding has to be attained from first principle and computer program be developed, calibrated with experimental results/validated with literature and calibrated code be further used for conceptual design for futuristic engines or analyzing the existing engine.
Power Quality Enhancement of Grid Connected Wind Energy System Using Static Synchronous Compensator
Pramod Raikar, S.S. Desai, Shekhappa.G. Ankaliki | pp: 77-85 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Due to increased power demand and environmental concern, wind power generation is rapidly growing and wind plants are being integrated to power networks worldwide in large numbers. Injection of wind power into a utility grid results in violation of power quality due to the fluctuating nature of the wind. According to IEC standard, determination of power quality is from the performance of wind generators. In this work power quality issues such as voltage variations, flickers, harmonics are demonstrated due to installation of wind turbine with the grid. FACTS devices can be used to overcome these power quality problems. This paper proposes the STATCOM control scheme for grid connected wind energy system for power quality enhancement. The simulation has been done in MATLAB/Simulink block set. It is shown that STATCOM enhances the power quality of power grid consisting induction generator based wind plant.
High Power Factor Induction Heating System with Interleaved Variable Duty Cycle
A. Isvariya, J. Santhi, G. Sugumaran, N. Barani | pp: 86-90 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: In the past two decades, induction heating has been broadly applied to the catering industry as domestic induction cooker. Currently, due to the numerous benefits brought, such as high heating efficiency, controllability, quiet, and cleanliness, the commercial induction cooker draws increasing attentions in restaurants to replace the traditional stove. The design of a new Ac–Ac resonant converter is applied to the purpose of domestic induction heating and this proposed topology is based on the half-bridge series resonant inverter, using two diodes to rectify the mains voltage. It can be activated with zero-voltage switching during both switches – on and off transitions. This topology and interleaved pulsing achieved a nearly unity power factor. Based on the result, the converter effectiveness and also efficiency are enhanced. The methodical and mock-up results have been demonstrated by means of a 3600-W induction heating prototype. A deep study has been carried out to attain the heating efficiency of induction cooker is more than 96%. The main voltage is rectified and then a medium-frequency current is provided for inverter to feed the inductor. Here the usual operating frequency is taken as more than 20 kHz to avoid the audible range and lower than 100 kHz to reduce switching losses.
Performance Analysis of Two Phase Thermosyphon Solar Water Heater
S. Suresh, K. Kuppan, D. Balamurali, P. Lawrence | pp: 91-96 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Solar energy is recognized as one of the most promising alternative energy options. On sunny days, solar energy systems generally collect more energy than necessary for direct use. Therefore the design and development of solar energy systems is of vital importance and nowadays one of the greatest efforts in solar research. This project investigates experimentally the thermal performance of a two-phase thermosyphon water heater. Different heat transfer mechanisms, including natural convection, nucleate boiling and film wise condensation , are observed in the two phase thermosyphon solar water heater while solar radiations varies. The proposed system achieves characteristics efficiency higher than the conventional systems by reducing heat loss for the two-phase thermosyphon solar water heater.
Detection and Classification of Lung Tissue Using block based Intensity Features
S. Sumaiya Banu, S. Syed Farmhand, P. Prabaharan, L. Malathi | pp:97-101 | Download Paper | Show Abstract
Abstract: Content based image classification address the problem of retrieving images relevant to the user needs from image databases on the basis of low-level visual features that can be derived from the images. Grouping images into meaningful categories to reveal useful information is a challenging and important problem. Clustering is a data mining technique to group a set of unsupervised data based on the conceptual clustering principal: maximizing the intra class similarity and minimizing the interclass similarity. Proposed framework focuses on color as feature. Color Moment and Block Truncation Coding (BTC) are used to extract features for image dataset. Experimental study using K-Means clustering algorithm is conducted to group the image dataset into various clusters.